Twelve Ways the Apostles Understood and Applied the Old Testament in the New Testament This week, we're excited to share a special conference message on the The Already and Not Yet from our last biblical theology conference on Preaching and Teaching the Old Testament with G.K. Beale, Benjamin L. Gladd, and T. James Milliken. In this plenary message, Dr. Benjamin Gladd expounds the twelve primary ways the apostles used the OT in the NT:
(1) To indicate direct fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy (2) To indicate indirect fulfillment of Old Testament typological prophecy.
(3) To affirm that a not-yet-fulfilled OT prophecy will surely be fulfilled in the future.
(4) To indicate an analogical or illustrative use of the Old Testament.
(5) To indicate the symbolic use of the Old Testament.
(6) To indicate an abiding authority carried over from the Old Testament.
(7) To indicate a proverbial use of the Old Testament.
(8) To indicate a rhetorical use of the Old Testament.
(9) To indicate the use of an OT passage as a blueprint or prototype for an NT passage.
(10) To indicate an alternate textual use of the Old Testament.
(11) To indicate an assimilated use of the Old Testament.
(12) To indicate an ironic or inverted use of the Old Testament.